The price that you pay will probably vary from organization to organization since it will largely depend on what offerings\agreements you have in place with Microsoft or Microsoft re-seller. I highly encourage you to work directly with someone on purchasing since they can may be able to work wonders on what your underlying cost. And just think, at minimum you are paying MSRP cost anyways.
I am including the MSRP pricing below, however, keep in mind what you pay may be very different. But this begins to give you and idea of what your cost may look like. Note: These costs are based on SQL 2017 pricing.
Enterprise – $14,256 per license which includes 2 cores
Standard – $3,717 per license which includes 2 cores
Standard server + CAL – $931 server license + $209 per CAL
Express – Free
Developer – Microsoft made Developer edition free starting with SQL 2014. For prior versions, check with your licensing rep. You may be covered under a visual studio\MSDN subscription or you may need to license per user
In addition to the license cost, you also need to factor in Software Assurance. As a starting point, factor in around 30% of the cost of the license to cover this to be paid yearly. With some agreements though, this may be bundled together with your licenses.